Suppose that the expected values of threat and vulnerability of the two alternatives Ak and Ai are vktk and viti respectively. Therefore, relative performance of alternatives is:. Lower value of vjtj corresponds to the more attractive alternative, therefore, in order to go to the maximization problem, we should consider the reciprocal values under risk criterion.
Linear scale should be used for comparing the alternatives under risk criterion. In case of relative importance of criteria comparison, it is necessary to take in consideration a requirement of normality:.
Therefore, following simple procedure can be used in practice. The first step is to assign weights Wj and Wj to two random criteria Cj and Cj based on their relative importance. Absolute values of alternatives in terms of each criterion were estimated by experts. In accordance with rules proposed in Section 3, the entries of S, F and R can be calculated as follows:.
In accordance with Section 3. Let use weighted production model WPM to define relative attractiveness of alternatives. WPM is one of best known and simplest MCDM method for evaluating number of alternatives in terms of a number decision criteria. Suppose that a given MCDM problem is defined on m alternatives and n decision criteria, and all the criteria are benefit criteria, that is, the higher the values are, the better it is. Let Wj denotes the relative weight of importance of the criterion Cj and ajki is the relative performance value of alternative Ak regarding alternative Aj when they are evaluated in terms of criterion Cj.
So, to compare the two alternatives Ak and Aj the following product has to be calculated :. With given C, S, F and R: Therefore, with given criteria priorities and parameters estimations the best alternative is A2, because it is superior to all the other alternatives.
The ranking of alternatives is as follows: The main goal of paper is to propose simple model that can be used in practice. Three criteria cost of ownerships saving, intangible benefits that associated with speed of reaction to change and security risks that have been proposed here are enough simple and all necessary data can be obtained from accounting system, contract conditions, statistics and expert opinions.
Model-Driven Risk Analysis | Request PDF
The proposed method helps easy to get a consistent matrix of pairwise comparisons. All of this leads to the conclusion that the proposed method can be used in practice. Marston S. Cloud Computing: The Business Perspective.
Decision Support Systems. Armbrust M. A View of Cloud Computing. Communications of the ACM. Karunakaran S. Business View of Cloud: Management Research Review. Yang H. Communications of the Association for Information Systems. Paper 2. Tak B. To Move or not to Move: The Economics of Cloud Computing. Khajeh-Hosseini A. The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Supporting Cloud Adoption Decisions in the Enterprise.
Model-Driven Risk Analysis
Practice and Experience. Misra S. Mathematical and Computer Modelling. Advanced Computer and Communication Engineering Technology. Springer, Garg S. Future Generation Computer Systems. Sundarraj R. Outlooks and Insights on Group Decision and Negotiation.
Delone W. A Ten-Year Update. Journal of management information systems. Takabi H. Catteddu D. Benefits, Risks and Recommendations for Information Security. ENISA, Subashini S. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. Hashizume K. Journal of Internet Services and Applications. Angeles S. Business News Daily, Grimes R. InfoWorld, Martens B. Decision-Making in Cloud Computing Environments: Consequentially, companies are often forced to suboptimally retrofit security into their business processes in response to security breaches.
The goal of the study was to identify the security risks in the redesigned process using a structured matrix-based risk analysis approach that links the assets of the organization at risk to security controls. Software Security: Building Security In. Gary McGraw. Summary form only given. I will present a detailed approach to getting past theory and putting software security into practice. The three pillars of software security are applied risk management, software security best practices which I call touchpointsand knowledge.
By describing a manageably small set of touchpoints based around the software artifacts that you already produce, I avoid religious warfare over process and get on with the business of software security. That means you can adopt the touchpoints without radically changing the way you work. The touchpoints I will describe include: Like the yin and the yang, software security requires a careful balance-attack and defense, exploiting and designing, breaking and building-bound into a coherent package.
Create your own Security Development Lifecycle by enhancing your existing software development lifecycle with the touchpoints.
(PDF) Towards a Cloud Computing Paradigm for Big Data Analysis in Smart Cities
Jun A security risk analysis will only serve its purpose if we can trust that the risk levels obtained from the analysis are correct. However, obtaining correct risk levels requires that we find correct likelihood and consequence values for the unwanted incidents identified during the analysis.
This is often very hard. Moreover, the values may soon be outdated as the system under consideration or its environment changes. It is therefore desirable to be able to base estimates of risk levels on measurable indicators that are dynamically updated. In this paper we present an approach for exploiting measurable indicators in order to obtain a risk picture that is continuously or periodically updated.
We also suggest dynamic notions of confidence aiming to capture to what extent we may trust the current risk picture. The general trend towards complex technical systems with embedded software results in an increasing demand for dependable high quality software.
The UML as an advanced object-oriented technology provides in principle the essential concepts which are required to handle the increasing complexity of these safety-critical software systems. However, the current and forthcoming UML versions do not directly apply to the outlined problem. Available hazard analysis techniques on the other hand do not provide the required degree of integration with software design notations.
To narrow the gap between safety-critical system development and UML techniques, the presented approach supports the compositional hazard analysis of UML models described by restricted component and deployment diagrams.
The approach permits to systematically identify which hazards and failures are most serious, which components or set of components require a more detailed safety analysis, and which restrictions to the failure propagation are assumed in the UML design. Component-Based Hazard Analysis: Therefore, the required hazard analysis has to consider not only a concrete system and its embedded software but also the different software configurations.
We present several extensions to an existing component-based hazard analysis approach.
(PDF) Assessment of Cyber Physical System Risks with Domain Specific Modelling and Simulation
At first, our approach permits to identify the optimal design variant w. As the number of variants in a product family is often enormous, our approach secondly supports the hazard analysis of a whole product family at once.
The analysis identifies the variant or combination of variants with the worst hazard probability. Finally, we show that also the hazards of systems with online-reconfiguration can be analyzed using the presented approach. The decomposition of complex systems into manageable parts is an essential principle when dealing with complex technical systems.
However, many safety and reliability modelling techniques do not support hierarchical decomposition in the desired way. Fault Tree Analysis FTA offers decomposition into modules, a breakdown with regard to the hierarchy of failure influences rather than to the system architecture. In this paper we propose a compositional extension of the FTA technique.
Each technical component is represented by an extended Fault Tree. Besides the internal basic events and gates, each component can have input and output ports. By connecting these ports, components can be integrated into a higher-level system model. All components can be developed independently and stored in separate files or component libraries. Mathematically, each Component Fault Tree represents a logical function from its input ports and internal events to its output ports.
As in traditional FTA, both qualitative and quantitative analyses are possible. Known algorithms e. The Windows based safety analysis tool UWG3 has been developed to prove this concept in practice. It allows creating component libraries in an exchangeable XML format. We have carried out some case studies in order to show that the new concept improves clearness and intuitive modelling while maintaining the same results as traditional FTA.
Frank Innerhofer-Oberperfler. In this paper we propose a novel approach for the systematic assessment and analysis of IT related risks in organisations and projects. The approach is model-driven using an enterprise architecture as the basis for the security management process.
That way we want to bridge the technical and business oriented views on information security. The proposed approach provides a detailed process of security management and defines the necessary responsibilities and roles of the participating stake-holders. Attacks against computer systems can cause considerable economic or physical damage.
High-quality development of security-critical systems is difficult, mainly because of the conflict between development costs and verifiable correctness. It uses the standard UML extension mechanisms, and can be employed to evaluate UML specifications for vulnerabilities using a formal semantics of a simplified fragment of UML.
Established rules of security engineering can be encapsulated and hence made available even to developers who are not specialists in security. With a clear separation between the general description of his approach and its mathematical foundations, the book is ideally suited both for researchers and graduate students in UML or formal methods and security, and for advanced professionals writing critical applications.
All rights are reserved. Influence Diagrams. Sep Decis Anal. Ronald A. Howard James E. Graphical representations have played a central role in decision analysis. Although decision trees remain popular, more general graphical languages can be used to encode relationships among variables of a decision basis. Influence diagrams, introduced Legal Risk in the Financial Markets.
Roger McCormick. Tracing the origins of legal risk as a phenomenon in the global financial markets, particularly in the UK market, this book analyses the different components of legal risk in light of the global financial crisis, identifying characteristics, examples and management strategies, and analyses current and recent legal risk concerns as well as looking to the future.
Fully updated from the first edition, this book includes substantial new material on the global financial crisis and its effects on legal risk, coverage of responses to the Crisis in the UK and elsewhere, including G20 proposals and EU initiatives, and substantial new material on globalisation issues.
The book also considers the impact of case law, statute law and regulatory change on the management of legal risk. Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World. Jan Info. Bruce Schneier.Risks with Cloud Computing and Virtualization - CompTIA Security+ SY0-401: 2.1
The landscape: Digital threats. Security needs -- Technologies: Cryptography in context. Applied statistics. Bases of modeling and initial data processing. Financy i statisitca, Bonham, S. Artech House, Hackathorn, R.: Zelenkov Y.
Components of Enterprise IT Strategy: Zelenkov, Y. Ciborra, C. The Labyrinths of Information: Challenging the Wisdom of System. Oxford University Press, Maurer, C. Goodhue, D. Paper Luftman, J. Murer, S. Managed Evolution: Gordon, L. Bellandi V. Chih C. Jiang Z. Карабутов Н. Структурная идентификация систем: МГИУ, Bellman R. Dynamic Programming. For citation: Information and Control Systems.
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